information nexus

science & technology - world news & politics - human rights & law - economics & infrastructure - environment & climate

we-are-star-stuff:

How Soon Do You Benefit From Smoking Cessation?
One of the main reasons it’s so hard to quit smoking is because all the benefits of quitting and all the dangers of continuing seem very far away. Well, here’s a timeline that shows how quickly the effects of smoking can be undone.
The first few weeks after quitting smoking are usually the most difficult and it’s safe to say that it normally takes at least 8-12 weeks before a person starts to feel comfortable with their new lifestyle change of being an ex-smoker. Withdrawal from nicotine, an addictive drug found in tobacco, is characterized by symptoms that include headache, anxiety, nausea and a craving for more tobacco. Nicotine creates a chemical dependency, so that the body develops a need for a certain level of nicotine at all times.
Unless that level is maintained, the body will begin to go through withdrawal. For tobacco users trying to quit, symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine are unpleasant and stressful, but only temporary. Most withdrawal symptoms peak 48 hours after you quit and are completely gone in six months.
Because the first two weeks are so critical in determining quitting failure rates, smokers should not be shy about seeking all the help they can during this period.
Withdrawal symptoms begin as soon as four hours after the last cigarette, generally peak in intensity at three to five days, and disappear after two weeks. They include both physical and mental symptoms.
Mental and Emotional Symptoms
Tension and craving build up during periods of withdrawal, sometimes to a nearly intolerable point. One European study found that the incidence of workplace accidents increases on No Smoking Day, a day in which up to 2 million smokers either reduce the amount they smoke or abstain altogether.
Nearly every moderate to heavy smoker experiences more than one of the following strong emotional and mental responses to withdrawal.
Feelings of being an infant: temper tantrums, intense needs, feelings of dependency, a state of near paralysis.
Insomnia
Mental confusion
Vagueness
Irritability
Anxiety
Depression is common in the short and long term. In the short term it may mimic the feelings of grief felt when a loved one is lost. As foolish as it sounds, a smoker should plan on a period of actual mourning in order to get through the early withdrawal depression.
Physical Symptoms.
During the quitting process people should consider the following physical symptoms of withdrawal as they were recuperating from a disease and treat them accordingly as they would any physical symptoms:
Tingling in the hands and feet
Sweating
Intestinal disorders (cramps, nausea)
Headache
Cold symptoms as the lungs begin to clear (sore throats, coughing, and other signs of colds and respiratory problem)
One of the keys to quitting smoking is acknowledging that smoking cigarettes is an addiction that can be managed and overcome. One of the main reasons people give up quitting is because they find the withdrawal symptoms so fierce and unexpected. Don’t worry! these symptoms are actually good news, signs that your body is purging itself of all the harmful chemicals cigarettes left in your body.
[ sources x x]

we-are-star-stuff:

How Soon Do You Benefit From Smoking Cessation?

One of the main reasons it’s so hard to quit smoking is because all the benefits of quitting and all the dangers of continuing seem very far away. Well, here’s a timeline that shows how quickly the effects of smoking can be undone.

The first few weeks after quitting smoking are usually the most difficult and it’s safe to say that it normally takes at least 8-12 weeks before a person starts to feel comfortable with their new lifestyle change of being an ex-smoker. Withdrawal from nicotine, an addictive drug found in tobacco, is characterized by symptoms that include headache, anxiety, nausea and a craving for more tobacco. Nicotine creates a chemical dependency, so that the body develops a need for a certain level of nicotine at all times.

Unless that level is maintained, the body will begin to go through withdrawal. For tobacco users trying to quit, symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine are unpleasant and stressful, but only temporary. Most withdrawal symptoms peak 48 hours after you quit and are completely gone in six months.

Because the first two weeks are so critical in determining quitting failure rates, smokers should not be shy about seeking all the help they can during this period.

Withdrawal symptoms begin as soon as four hours after the last cigarette, generally peak in intensity at three to five days, and disappear after two weeks. They include both physical and mental symptoms.

Mental and Emotional Symptoms

Tension and craving build up during periods of withdrawal, sometimes to a nearly intolerable point. One European study found that the incidence of workplace accidents increases on No Smoking Day, a day in which up to 2 million smokers either reduce the amount they smoke or abstain altogether.

Nearly every moderate to heavy smoker experiences more than one of the following strong emotional and mental responses to withdrawal.

  • Feelings of being an infant: temper tantrums, intense needs, feelings of dependency, a state of near paralysis.
  • Insomnia
  • Mental confusion
  • Vagueness
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Depression is common in the short and long term. In the short term it may mimic the feelings of grief felt when a loved one is lost. As foolish as it sounds, a smoker should plan on a period of actual mourning in order to get through the early withdrawal depression.

Physical Symptoms.

During the quitting process people should consider the following physical symptoms of withdrawal as they were recuperating from a disease and treat them accordingly as they would any physical symptoms:

  • Tingling in the hands and feet
  • Sweating
  • Intestinal disorders (cramps, nausea)
  • Headache
  • Cold symptoms as the lungs begin to clear (sore throats, coughing, and other signs of colds and respiratory problem)

One of the keys to quitting smoking is acknowledging that smoking cigarettes is an addiction that can be managed and overcome. One of the main reasons people give up quitting is because they find the withdrawal symptoms so fierce and unexpected. Don’t worry! these symptoms are actually good news, signs that your body is purging itself of all the harmful chemicals cigarettes left in your body.

[ sources x x]

— 2 weeks ago with 539 notes
#smoking  #health  #nicotine  #infographic  #tobacco  #cigarettes 
fouriestseries:

Chaos and the Double Pendulum
A chaotic system is one in which infinitesimal differences in the starting conditions lead to drastically different results as the system evolves.
Summarized by mathematician Edward Lorentz, ”Chaos [is] when the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future.”
There’s an important distinction to make between a chaotic system and a random system. Given the starting conditions, a chaotic system is entirely deterministic. A random system, on the other hand, is entirely non-deterministic, even when the starting conditions are known. That is, with enough information, the evolution of a “chaotic” system is entirely predictable, but in a random system there’s no amount of information that would be enough to predict the system’s evolution.
The simulations above show two slightly different initial conditions for a double pendulum — an example of a chaotic system. In the left animation both pendulums begin horizontally, and in the right animation the red pendulum begins horizontally and the blue is rotated by 0.1 radians (≈ 5.73°) above the positive x-axis. In both simulations, all of the pendulums begin from rest.
Mathematica code posted here.
[For more information on how to solve for the motion of a double pendulum, check out my video here.]

fouriestseries:

Chaos and the Double Pendulum

chaotic system is one in which infinitesimal differences in the starting conditions lead to drastically different results as the system evolves.

Summarized by mathematician Edward Lorentz, ”Chaos [is] when the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future.”

There’s an important distinction to make between a chaotic system and a random system. Given the starting conditions, a chaotic system is entirely deterministic. A random system, on the other hand, is entirely non-deterministic, even when the starting conditions are known. That is, with enough information, the evolution of a “chaotic” system is entirely predictable, but in a random system there’s no amount of information that would be enough to predict the system’s evolution.

The simulations above show two slightly different initial conditions for a double pendulum — an example of a chaotic system. In the left animation both pendulums begin horizontally, and in the right animation the red pendulum begins horizontally and the blue is rotated by 0.1 radians (≈ 5.73°) above the positive x-axis. In both simulations, all of the pendulums begin from rest.

Mathematica code posted here.

[For more information on how to solve for the motion of a double pendulum, check out my video here.]

(via blue-eyes-white-dragqueen)

— 2 weeks ago with 7077 notes
#math  #chaos theory  #double pendulum  #mathematics  #chaotic system  #random system 
xysciences:

After travelling for 37 years, NASA has today confirmed that Voyager 1 has entered interstellar space. 
Voyager 1 is the farthest any man made object has ever travelled away from Earth.
Voyager 1 is currently located about 11 billion miles away from Earth. 
(x)
[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

xysciences:

After travelling for 37 years, NASA has today confirmed that Voyager 1 has entered interstellar space. 

Voyager 1 is the farthest any man made object has ever travelled away from Earth.

Voyager 1 is currently located about 11 billion miles away from Earth. 

(x)

[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

(via imfreshlysqueezed-deactivated20)

— 2 weeks ago with 163 notes
#Voyager 1  #Astronomy  #NASA  #Voyager 
neurosciencestuff:

Sleep deprivation leads to symptoms of schizophrenia
Psychologists at the University of Bonn are amazed by the severe deficits caused by a sleepless night
Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation can lead to conditions in healthy persons similar to the symptoms of schizophrenia. This discovery was made by an international team of researchers under the guidance of the University of Bonn and King’s College London. The scientists point out that this effect should be investigated more closely in persons who have to work at night. In addition, sleep deprivation may serve as a model system for the development of drugs to treat psychosis. The results have now been published in “The Journal of Neuroscience”.
In psychosis, there is a loss of contact with reality and this is associated with hallucinations and delusions. The chronic form is referred to as schizophrenia, which likewise involves thought disorders and misperceptions. Affected persons report that they hear voices, for example. Psychoses rank among the most severe mental illnesses. An international team of researchers under the guidance of the University of Bonn has now found out that after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in healthy patients, numerous symptoms were noted which are otherwise typically attributed to psychosis or schizophrenia. “It was clear to us that a sleepless night leads to impairment in the ability to concentrate,” says Prof. Dr. Ulrich Ettinger of the Cognitive Psychology Unit in the Department of Psychology at the University of Bonn. “But we were surprised at how pronounced and how wide the spectrum of schizophrenia-like symptoms was.”
The scientists from the University of Bonn, King’s College London (England) as well as the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University of Bonn Hospital examined a total of 24 healthy subjects of both genders aged 18 to 40 in the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychology. In an initial run, the test subjects were to sleep normally in the laboratory. About one week later, they were kept awake all night with movies, conversation, games and brief walks. On the following morning, subjects were each asked about their thoughts and feelings. In addition, subjects underwent a measurement known as prepulse inhibition.
Unselected information leads to chaos in the brain
"Prepulse inhibition is a standard test to measure the filtering function of the brain,” explains lead author Dr. Nadine Petrovsky from Prof. Ettinger’s team. In the experiment, a loud noise is heard via headphones. As a result, the test subjects experience a startle response, which is recorded with electrodes through the contraction of facial muscles. If a weaker stimulus is emitted beforehand as a “prepulse”, the startle response is lower. “The prepulse inhibition demonstrates an important function of the brain: Filters separate what is important from what is not important and prevent sensory overload,” says Dr. Petrovsky.
In our subjects, this filtering function of the brain was significantly reduced following a sleepless night. “There were pronounced attention deficits, such as what typically occurs in the case of schizophrenia,” reports Prof. Ettinger. “The unselected flood of information led to chaos in the brain.” Following sleep deprivation, the subjects also indicated in questionnaires that they were somewhat more sensitive to light, color or brightness. Accordingly, their sense of time and sense of smell were altered and mental leaps were reported. Many of those who spent the night even had the impression of being able to read thoughts or notice altered body perception. “We did not expect that the symptoms could be so pronounced after one night spent awake,” says the psychologist from the University of Bonn.
Sleep deprivation as a model system for mental illnesses
The scientists see an important potential application for their results in research for drugs to treat psychoses. “In drug development, mental disorders like these have been simulated to date in experiments using certain active substances. However, these convey the symptoms of psychoses in only a very limited manner,” says Prof. Ettinger. Sleep deprivation may be a much better model system because the subjective symptoms and the objectively measured filter disorder are far more akin to mental illnesses. Of course, the sleep deprivation model is not harmful: After a good night’s recovery sleep, the symptoms disappear. There is also a need for research with regard to persons who regularly have to work at night. “Whether the symptoms of sleep deprivation gradually become weaker due to acclimatization has yet to be investigated,” says the psychologist from the University of Bonn.
(Image: Getty)

neurosciencestuff:

Sleep deprivation leads to symptoms of schizophrenia

Psychologists at the University of Bonn are amazed by the severe deficits caused by a sleepless night

Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation can lead to conditions in healthy persons similar to the symptoms of schizophrenia. This discovery was made by an international team of researchers under the guidance of the University of Bonn and King’s College London. The scientists point out that this effect should be investigated more closely in persons who have to work at night. In addition, sleep deprivation may serve as a model system for the development of drugs to treat psychosis. The results have now been published in “The Journal of Neuroscience”.

In psychosis, there is a loss of contact with reality and this is associated with hallucinations and delusions. The chronic form is referred to as schizophrenia, which likewise involves thought disorders and misperceptions. Affected persons report that they hear voices, for example. Psychoses rank among the most severe mental illnesses. An international team of researchers under the guidance of the University of Bonn has now found out that after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in healthy patients, numerous symptoms were noted which are otherwise typically attributed to psychosis or schizophrenia. “It was clear to us that a sleepless night leads to impairment in the ability to concentrate,” says Prof. Dr. Ulrich Ettinger of the Cognitive Psychology Unit in the Department of Psychology at the University of Bonn. “But we were surprised at how pronounced and how wide the spectrum of schizophrenia-like symptoms was.”

The scientists from the University of Bonn, King’s College London (England) as well as the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University of Bonn Hospital examined a total of 24 healthy subjects of both genders aged 18 to 40 in the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychology. In an initial run, the test subjects were to sleep normally in the laboratory. About one week later, they were kept awake all night with movies, conversation, games and brief walks. On the following morning, subjects were each asked about their thoughts and feelings. In addition, subjects underwent a measurement known as prepulse inhibition.

Unselected information leads to chaos in the brain

"Prepulse inhibition is a standard test to measure the filtering function of the brain,” explains lead author Dr. Nadine Petrovsky from Prof. Ettinger’s team. In the experiment, a loud noise is heard via headphones. As a result, the test subjects experience a startle response, which is recorded with electrodes through the contraction of facial muscles. If a weaker stimulus is emitted beforehand as a “prepulse”, the startle response is lower. “The prepulse inhibition demonstrates an important function of the brain: Filters separate what is important from what is not important and prevent sensory overload,” says Dr. Petrovsky.

In our subjects, this filtering function of the brain was significantly reduced following a sleepless night. “There were pronounced attention deficits, such as what typically occurs in the case of schizophrenia,” reports Prof. Ettinger. “The unselected flood of information led to chaos in the brain.” Following sleep deprivation, the subjects also indicated in questionnaires that they were somewhat more sensitive to light, color or brightness. Accordingly, their sense of time and sense of smell were altered and mental leaps were reported. Many of those who spent the night even had the impression of being able to read thoughts or notice altered body perception. “We did not expect that the symptoms could be so pronounced after one night spent awake,” says the psychologist from the University of Bonn.

Sleep deprivation as a model system for mental illnesses

The scientists see an important potential application for their results in research for drugs to treat psychoses. “In drug development, mental disorders like these have been simulated to date in experiments using certain active substances. However, these convey the symptoms of psychoses in only a very limited manner,” says Prof. Ettinger. Sleep deprivation may be a much better model system because the subjective symptoms and the objectively measured filter disorder are far more akin to mental illnesses. Of course, the sleep deprivation model is not harmful: After a good night’s recovery sleep, the symptoms disappear. There is also a need for research with regard to persons who regularly have to work at night. “Whether the symptoms of sleep deprivation gradually become weaker due to acclimatization has yet to be investigated,” says the psychologist from the University of Bonn.

(Image: Getty)

— 2 weeks ago with 561 notes
#sleep deprivation  #schizophrenia  #psychosis  #science  #mental illness  #Neuroscience 
america-wakiewakie:

No Charges for Cop Who Killed 13 Year Old Holding Toy Gun | The Free Thought Project 
Sonoma County DA announced on Monday that they will not be filing charges against Deputy Erick Gelhaus who shot a child through the heart, then 6 more times after the first fatal round, on October 22, in Santa Rosa, CA.
The young boy was walking down the street carrying a partially translucent plastic airsoft BB gun that resembled a rifle when he was spotted by Deputy Gelhaus and his partner Michael Schemmel.
Gelhaus ordered Lopez to drop his weapon, possibly confused because the orange tip on the toy was missing.
Lopez then began to turn towards the officer when the officer immediately opened fire, shooting to kill. Gelhaus told investigators that he could not remember if he identified himself as a police officer,
Seven bullets were fired at Andy Lopez within six seconds.  The officer’s report claims that he shot Lopez after he turned towards him with the toy gun, despite bullet wounds in Lopez’s side (which supporters claim may indicate he was struck while turning).
The altercation lasted a total of 19 seconds from the call for backup to “shots fired”.
After the 8th grader was on the ground, having been shot repeatedly, the officers then handcuffed the child’s dead, lifeless body.
New information released yesterday indicates Lopez may have smoked weed in the hours before the incident, the report states that he would likely have had “impaired judgement, slowed decision making and increased mental processing time, particularly when having to deal with performance of sudden, unanticipated tasks, including decisions that require a quick response.”
Jonathan Melrod, attorney and extremely dedicated activist, said the decision was based on “patent lies.”
“The police feel that we, the community, are their enemy, they police us as though they are still in Iraq or Afghanistan.” he stated.  He also said that using marijuana as an excuse is just a way to divert blame to the victim.
“Let’s assume there was THC. Does that justify executing Andy?” he demanded.
Gelhaus is ironically a firearms instructor, as well as a contributing writer to gun publications, despite having once accidentally shot himself in the leg in 1995 as he searched a teenager for weapons.
People gathered to protest the decision last night, and social media was full of cries of “You say justified- We say homicide!” and “Jailhouse for Gelhaus”.
Dozens of protests have been organized, mainly by other children who go by “Andy’s Youth”, and they have been passionate and intense.  From crossing police lines to bravely face off with riot police, marching and storming city council with crosses representing police brutality victims, to shaming killer cops they run into along their marches… these kids have been truly inspiring.
A demonstration to protest the decision was scheduled at the “hall of injustice” for Tuesday at 1pm.
It has yet to be announced if Gelhaus will begin patrolling the streets once again.  Lets hope he doesn’t.
Andy’s life mattered. 

america-wakiewakie:

No Charges for Cop Who Killed 13 Year Old Holding Toy Gun | The Free Thought Project 

Sonoma County DA announced on Monday that they will not be filing charges against Deputy Erick Gelhaus who shot a child through the heart, then 6 more times after the first fatal round, on October 22, in Santa Rosa, CA.

The young boy was walking down the street carrying a partially translucent plastic airsoft BB gun that resembled a rifle when he was spotted by Deputy Gelhaus and his partner Michael Schemmel.

Gelhaus ordered Lopez to drop his weapon, possibly confused because the orange tip on the toy was missing.

Lopez then began to turn towards the officer when the officer immediately opened fire, shooting to kill. Gelhaus told investigators that he could not remember if he identified himself as a police officer,

Seven bullets were fired at Andy Lopez within six seconds.  The officer’s report claims that he shot Lopez after he turned towards him with the toy gun, despite bullet wounds in Lopez’s side (which supporters claim may indicate he was struck while turning).

The altercation lasted a total of 19 seconds from the call for backup to “shots fired”.

After the 8th grader was on the ground, having been shot repeatedly, the officers then handcuffed the child’s dead, lifeless body.

New information released yesterday indicates Lopez may have smoked weed in the hours before the incident, the report states that he would likely have had “impaired judgement, slowed decision making and increased mental processing time, particularly when having to deal with performance of sudden, unanticipated tasks, including decisions that require a quick response.”

Jonathan Melrod, attorney and extremely dedicated activist, said the decision was based on “patent lies.”

“The police feel that we, the community, are their enemy, they police us as though they are still in Iraq or Afghanistan.” he stated.  He also said that using marijuana as an excuse is just a way to divert blame to the victim.

“Let’s assume there was THC. Does that justify executing Andy?” he demanded.

Gelhaus is ironically a firearms instructor, as well as a contributing writer to gun publications, despite having once accidentally shot himself in the leg in 1995 as he searched a teenager for weapons.

People gathered to protest the decision last night, and social media was full of cries of “You say justified- We say homicide!” and “Jailhouse for Gelhaus”.

Dozens of protests have been organized, mainly by other children who go by “Andy’s Youth”, and they have been passionate and intense.  From crossing police lines to bravely face off with riot policemarching and storming city council with crosses representing police brutality victims, to shaming killer cops they run into along their marches… these kids have been truly inspiring.

A demonstration to protest the decision was scheduled at the “hall of injustice” for Tuesday at 1pm.

It has yet to be announced if Gelhaus will begin patrolling the streets once again.  Lets hope he doesn’t.

Andy’s life mattered. 

— 2 weeks ago with 2599 notes
#police brutality  #police  #Andy Lopez  #news 

thenewenlightenmentage:

How the Moon Formed: Lunar Rocks Support Giant Impact Theory

A new analysis of lunar rocks now supports the idea that the moon was born in a gigantic collision between the nascent Earth and a mysterious planet-size rock, scientists say.

Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago, and scientists think the moon came into being shortly afterward. The prevailing explanation for the moon’s origin, known as the Giant Impact Hypothesis, is that it resulted from two protoplanets (or embryonic worlds) that slammed together — the Earth as it was forming, and a Mars-size object called Theia. A lot of debris went on to form the moon.

Continue Reading

(via astrodidact)

— 2 weeks ago with 1365 notes
#Moon  #Astronomy  #planetary science  #science  #solar system  #the moon  #Theia  #protoplanet  #Giant impact hypothesis 
futurescope:

CarbonX: Magic fabric doesn’t catch fire after being doused with molten aluminum
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.

CarbonX is an acrylic fiber that is partially charred in an incinerator, a carbon sheath forms around an unburned acrylic core. When this charred fiber is exposed to heat, the acrylic core burns completely, absorbing the heat energy of the flame.

[read more]

futurescope:

CarbonX: Magic fabric doesn’t catch fire after being doused with molten aluminum

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.

CarbonX is an acrylic fiber that is partially charred in an incinerator, a carbon sheath forms around an unburned acrylic core. When this charred fiber is exposed to heat, the acrylic core burns completely, absorbing the heat energy of the flame.

[read more]

— 3 weeks ago with 894 notes
#tech  #CarbonX  #acrylic fiber  #fireproof 

ted:

This is the Global Seed Vault — a doomsday vault built to save the world from starvation. It was made to ensure that humanity never runs out of diverse sources of food to grow, if-slash-when we totally destroy the planet. 

The vault houses over 800,000 seed samples from countries all over the world in a concrete tunnel designed to last 10,000 years, cut into a remote Norwegian mountainside. (Can’t you just imagine an Austin Powers plot set here?)

Watch the seedkeeper talk about it here »

(via we-are-star-stuff)

— 3 weeks ago with 4198 notes
#Global seed vault  #food  #biodiversity  #agriculture  #climate change  #Environment  #seeds  #Svalbard Norway 

sixpenceee:

A reservoir of water three times the volume of all the oceans has been discovered deep beneath the Earth’s surface. The finding could help explain where Earth’s seas came from.

The water is hidden inside a blue rock that lies 700 kilometres underground in the mantle, the layer of hot rock between Earth’s surface and its core.

Some geologists think water arrived in comets as they struck planets, but the new discovery supports an alternative idea that the ocean oozed out of Earth’s interior layer.

SOURCE

(via imfreshlysqueezed-deactivated20)

— 3 weeks ago with 166775 notes
#science  #geology  #water  #ringwoodite  #ocean 
greenthepress:

NASA satellites show how nitrous dioxide pollution, which causes respiratory problems, has been greatly reduced from 2005 to 2011, thanks in part to EPA regulations!

greenthepress:

NASA satellites show how nitrous dioxide pollution, which causes respiratory problems, has been greatly reduced from 2005 to 2011, thanks in part to EPA regulations!

(via mediamattersforamerica)

— 3 weeks ago with 163 notes
#EPA  #NASA  #pollution  #air pollution  #nitrogen dioxide 
thenewenlightenmentage:

Matter Will Be Created From Light Within A Year, Claim Scientists
In a neat demonstration of E=mc2, physicists believe they can create electrons and positrons from colliding photons
Researchers have worked out how to make matter from pure light and are drawing up plans to demonstrate the feat within the next 12 months.
The theory underpinning the idea was first described 80 years ago by two physicists who later worked on the first atomic bomb. At the time they considered the conversion of light into matter impossible in a laboratory.
Continue Reading

thenewenlightenmentage:

Matter Will Be Created From Light Within A Year, Claim Scientists

In a neat demonstration of E=mc2, physicists believe they can create electrons and positrons from colliding photons

Researchers have worked out how to make matter from pure light and are drawing up plans to demonstrate the feat within the next 12 months.

The theory underpinning the idea was first described 80 years ago by two physicists who later worked on the first atomic bomb. At the time they considered the conversion of light into matter impossible in a laboratory.

Continue Reading

(via ifnotyouwhoelse)

— 1 month ago with 1014 notes
#particle physics  #science  #quantum electrodynamics  #photonics  #light  #matter 
america-wakiewakie:

Greenwald to publish list of U.S. citizens NSA spied on | Washington Times
Glenn Greenwald, one of the reporters who chronicled the document dump by National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden via the U.K. press, now said he’s set to publish his most dramatic piece yet: The names of those in the United States targeted by the NSA.
“One of the big questions when is comes to domestic spying is, ‘Who have been the NSA’s specific targets?’ Are they political critics and dissidents and activists? Are they genuinely people we’d regard as terrorists? What are the metrics and calculations that go into choosing those targets and what is done with the surveillance that is conducted? Those are the kinds of questions that I want to still answer,” Mr. Greenwald told The Sunday Times of London.
Mr. Greenwald also pointed to the failures of the NSA to catch Mr. Snowden during his download and theft of 1.7 million documents, and said that’s further evidence of the government’s inability to guarantee data security.
“There is this genuinely menacing [spy] system and at the same time, [they] are really inept about how they operate it,” he said, Newsmax reported. “Not only was he out there under their noses downloading huge amounts of documents without being detected, but to this day, they’re incapable of finding out what he took.”
Mr. Greenwald, who’s promoting his new book, “No Place to Hide,” said the list will be published on The Intercept, the website he established after leaving The Guardian.
(Photo Credit: John Minchillo)

america-wakiewakie:

Greenwald to publish list of U.S. citizens NSA spied on | Washington Times

Glenn Greenwald, one of the reporters who chronicled the document dump by National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden via the U.K. press, now said he’s set to publish his most dramatic piece yet: The names of those in the United States targeted by the NSA.

“One of the big questions when is comes to domestic spying is, ‘Who have been the NSA’s specific targets?’ Are they political critics and dissidents and activists? Are they genuinely people we’d regard as terrorists? What are the metrics and calculations that go into choosing those targets and what is done with the surveillance that is conducted? Those are the kinds of questions that I want to still answer,” Mr. Greenwald told The Sunday Times of London.

Mr. Greenwald also pointed to the failures of the NSA to catch Mr. Snowden during his download and theft of 1.7 million documents, and said that’s further evidence of the government’s inability to guarantee data security.

“There is this genuinely menacing [spy] system and at the same time, [they] are really inept about how they operate it,” he said, Newsmax reported. “Not only was he out there under their noses downloading huge amounts of documents without being detected, but to this day, they’re incapable of finding out what he took.”

Mr. Greenwald, who’s promoting his new book, “No Place to Hide,” said the list will be published on The Intercept, the website he established after leaving The Guardian.

(Photo Credit: John Minchillo)

— 1 month ago with 294 notes
#Glenn Greenwald  #NSA  #PRISM  #privacy  #surveillance